These two are constantly mistaken for one another and misused with dogs. When owning a dog you must set rules, boundaries, and limitations with discipline.
But more often than not people decide to use punishment as a way to discipline the dog.
For example: slapping the dog on the rear end, shoving its face into its own feces when it potties in the house etc.
These are not proper ways to deal with a dog. One thing you must understand about dogs in order to properly handle them is they live in the moment. This means that when a dog potties in the house, if you do not catch the dog in the act and correct it or redirect it outside the dog will not understand what its being punished for. So then the argument comes up "My dog knows when he did something wrong, he lowers his head and crawls to me begging for mercy or runs away"
This is a HUGE sign of submission in dogs. This is a way to gain approval from a dog or show it means no threat. This is the only way dogs have to communicate so they continue to use this language with us. The dog may begin to associate eating in the garbage means I need to lower my head because my owner gets very angry and wacks me. When hitting a dog, or punishing a dog when in this submissive posture and state of mind you are essentially ruining the spirit of your dog and teaching it that submission is wrong. This is one of the most important communication tools a dog needs, to be dominant or submissive, to take that away is like taking away a spoken language from a child. That child will eventually become confused, and have absolutely no way to relate to any of its kind. The dog will stop trusting you and listen and cooperate with you out of fear. The dog will develop negative associations and possibly begin aggression with you, or other humans, or even other dogs because it has no way to relate anymore and has negative associations with many many things.
A being cooperating out of fear is one of the worst ways to get what you want. It is also not a relationship. The dog will never connect with you on a primal level because it cannot trust your being.
Proper ways to discipline your dog is by using the same language dogs use with one another. There is no pain involved in this simply calm assertive energy and small tactics to gain what you want from the dog as well as keeping the dogs trust and respect in you. Please consult a professional for proper ways to discipline your dog and keep a trusting and loving relationship with your dog.
Woofs & Wags my friends
Stay calm and assertive!